Yes. If you have full coverage on your vehicle, then it being keyed would fall under vandalism car insurance normally and be covered by your comprehensive coverage. The deductible associated with your Comprehensive coverage would then be due if you made a claim.
Perils and losses that fall under your comprehensive coverage typically are not your fault but the deductible is still due. Comprehensive insurance covers damage to your car if it is stolen; or damaged by animals, flood, fire, hail, vandalism, or glass breakage. So when you make a claim through this coverage for the damage a vandal did to your vehicle, your car insurance company will expect you to pay your related deductible amount.
Comprehensive and Collision are both physical damage coverages under your car insurance policy and both come with deductibles which you chose at the onset of your policy. If you chose a $0 deductible (if offered by your car insurance company) for Comprehensive at the inception then you would not owe any money but likely you picked a deductible amount between $250 and $1000 and that amount will be due.
While it is true that if you select a higher deductible for Comprehensive and Collision coverages your premium will be lower, you still always still chose an amount you feel comfortable paying out of pocket when and if an incident happens since the deductible amount will be due before your car insurance benefits kick in.
If you want to make a claim for the keying of your car you should get a police report, in case the perpetrator can be apprehended and held responsible, and then contact your insurance company to make a claim.
If your agent is not able to explain to you what to do in this situation or fulfill your car insurance needs, contact a CarInsurance.com agent and they can explain not only insurance terms and claim procedures but also tell you how they can get you cheap car insurance.