It will depend upon the underwriting rules of the insurance company you are trying to get insurance with if you will be required to pay in full for your next auto insurance policy.
In addition, it matters if the state requires you to file a financial requirement filing. Some states require a 6 month paid in full if you have allowed your insurance to lapse. This is referred to as an SR22s in some states.
Other factors that will likely play a part in the decision of an insurance company and if you will have to pay for a full year's policy in advance would be the length of your insurance lapse after your cancellation due to non-payment and if there were any losses since the cancellation date. For example, Direct General will usually reinstate a policy that has cancelled due to non-payment - as long as the lapse in coverage has been less than 30 days, and there have been no losses.
Get an online auto insurance quote and see if you can get a payment plan that will work for your needs.