Vermont is part of the Drivers License Compact (DLC) while your home state of Massachusetts is not. While Massachusetts is not a member of the Drivers License compact but the MA Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV) has agreements so that the state still shares and receives driving record and violation information with other states. Most offenses committed in other states will be put on your MA driving record and be treated by the RMV as if it occurred in state.
According to the MA RMV a person with a junior operator's license (JOL), which is sounds as if you have since you are under 18, does allow you to travel and drive a car out of state. The RMV notes that obviously you must obey the traffic laws of the state you will be driving in.
They also advise that you should check with that state's Division of Motor Vehicles as other states may have more restrictive provisions for junior operators. You are subject to all of the provisions of the Massachusetts JOL law.
If the Registrar receives information from the other state indicating that you were operating in violation of the Massachusetts passenger restriction, this office may take action to suspend your Junior Operator's License. So yes, the speeding ticket in Vermont can cause your JOL to be suspended.
As you are aware Massachusetts law requires a mandatory suspension, in addition to any other penalty, fine, revocation or requirement that may be imposed, for a conviction of speeding or drag racing when you are carrying a junior license. According to the MA RMV a conviction for speeding with a JOL will mean that the driver will receive a suspension of 90 days for a first offense, and one year for a second or subsequent offense for any combination of violations of the following.
The MA RMV can ask any specific questions you have about what will happen to your Massachusetts junior operator's license due to this VT speeding ticket. As for the penalties that you face in Vermont, contact the court listed on your citation.