If your use your own Collision coverage for your vehicle than you (the policyholder) pay the deductible associated with that portion of your auto insurance policy no matter if you are at fault in an accident or not. If you are not at fault than your insurance company may subrogate against the at-fault party for the monies they pay out on your claim and may also be able to recoup your deductible amount.
If you are not at fault in an accident and do not want to pay the deductible if you make a first party claim against your own auto insurance policy than you can make a third party claim against the at-fault party's Liability coverages instead.
When making a claim against the at-fault party's Property Damage Liability coverages there is not a deductible amount due. So if you do not want to pay a deductible when you are not at fault in an accident than you can place a claim through the other party's insurance instead of your own.