How states and even sometimes local jurisdictions within a state ticket deal with tickets vary. In general you get a copy of the citation at the stop by law enforcement. This ticket should describe your car, the speed, how the speed was determined, date, time, etc as well as how to take care of the citation. This usually means an address to mail in a payment (fine amount) to or a court to contact. Some tickets list the fine while may make you contact the court to find out your fine amount for the moving violation ticket you received.
So most tickets are handed to you at the traffic stop, not mailed to you at a later date. Tickets that you receive in the mail typically are those from say a red light camera or a speed camera. If however you were stopped and not given a copy of your ticket but told that you would receive a ticket in the mail than you can always call the law enforcement office that pulled you over for information on what will appear on the ticket or just wait for it to show up in the mail.
For how the speeding ticket will affect your driving record you can contact your state's Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to find out how many points this citation has associated with it if you are convicted of the offense. The DMV can also tell you how long the violation will stay on your motor vehicle record (MVR).
It will depend upon the rating system of your insurance company to determine how a speeding ticket will affect your rates. It this is your first moving violation going on your MVR it could just take away a safe driver discount. Your agent could tell you how the type of speeding ticket you received will affect your car insurance premiums.