Insurance points are used to assess the eligibility for auto insurance coverage and for calculation of rates. These points are assigned by your individual insurance company and each has their own type of "point" system. The system will vary but many insurance carriers use the system based on the guidelines set up by the Insurance Services Office (ISO).
Either using the ISO system or their own created system; insurance companies assign a value (point) to various vehicle incidents, such as an accident, DUI or moving violation. The point value will go up depending on the severity of the infraction. As you accumulate more "insurance points" as a driver the likelihood that your insurance premium rates will increase goes up.
If you would like to find out the specifics of your insurance carrier's rating system, since all companies differ in the exact variables they use, you can contact your state's insurance regulatory body. All insurance companies must file their rates with this entity.