As you are aware, the NCDOT Division of Motor Vehicles states that the N.C. General Assembly has enacted legislation which requires driver license applicants in North Carolina to submit proof of automobile liability insurance coverage in order to obtain a North Carolina driver's license
The minimum requirements of liability insurance for private passenger vehicles in North Carolina are 30/60/25. These numbers stand for $30,000 for bodily injury for 1 person, $60,000 bodily injury for 2 or more people in one accident and $25,000 for property damage occurring in one accident.
Certification of liability insurance coverage must be submitted on DMV Form DL-123, or an original liability insurance policy, binder or an insurance card and must come from an insurance company licensed to do business in North Carolina.
Since you do not own a car you would need to get a non-owners policy so that you have the required auto insurance and could drive other people's vehicles. If you only want your license though and have no plans on driving private passenger cars you can sign an insurance exemption for at the DMV.
The NCDOT states that the insurance requirement does not apply to applicants who do not own currently registered motor vehicles and who do not operate non-fleet private passenger motor vehicles that are owned by other persons. In such cases it is required that a certification of exemption (DL-123A) be signed at the driver license office. The exemption restricts the driver to the operation of "Fleet Vehicles Only". To remove the restriction the driver must pay a $10.00 fee and submit DMV Form DL-123.
If you plan to borrow friend's cars to drive once you have a license you should obtain a non-owners policy. Non-owners insurance is secondary to the car owner's car insurance and is there to give you liability protection when you are at fault in an accident but do not own a vehicle. Follow this link to start a quote for NC auto insurance.